Geography studies the events of the earth and the earth, their relations with man. The subject of geography is the relationship between man and various characteristics of the environment in which he lives. In other words, the interaction between the environment and human is the subject of Geography. For this reason, geography is a science that not only explores the soil, stone,water, air, plants and animals that make up the natural environment, but also reveals the relations between them and humans.

The location of any point on the earth is called a geographical location. Birecik district in the middle of southeastern Anatolia Region in the Euphrates District is a district of Sanliurfa province. The district is located on the border of Gaziantep province, southwest of Şanlıurfa. In the North halfeti, bozova in the northeast, suruç in the East, Karkamis in the West and Nizip (Gaziantep) districts and in the south the Syrian state is neighbor to the 28 kilometers of the district of Aynelarap.

The mathematical position of the District; 37 degrees 55 minutes east longitude, 7 degrees 02 minutes north latitude is located. Birecik, which is 340 meters high from the sea, is the center of a semi-circular plain surrounded by mountains around the Euphrates. The Euphrates River, from the district to the south by getting rid of steep, mountainous terrain, continues to flow in the wide Plains. At the beginning of transportation on the Euphrates River in the history of the city, it served as a port. The district is at a strategic point in road transportation.

Most of the drinking water of the district is covered by wells opened in the Euphrates Valley. The river Euphrates is the most suitable passage along the stream of the River Birecik’da bridge has come. It is known that one of the two bridges built on the chubbas in ancient times was in Samsat and the other was in the vicinity of birecik. These bridges are not durable because they are not robust. The mutual transitions of the Euphrates were made with shakes until the bridge was opened in 1956.

Birecik Turkey’s longest bridge before the Bosphorus Bridge (720 m.)) 10 April 1953 on the construction of the Euphrates, 10 April 1956 opened for transportation. The Euphrates River has a great place and importance in the economic and social history of the district.

In history, due to the advantages of its geographical position, the district has entered the kingdom of many states. Due to the fact that the Euphrates River was at the point where the crossing was most convenient and that there was a Wharf for the river transportation, it was a commercial moving camels.

Birecik district is located in the northern tip of Mesopotamia, where its humanity has been inhabited since the early ages. The city is located on the International e-90 highway leading from Europe to the Arab countries in the south through Anatolia, at the strategic transition point of the Middle East.

According to the current returns in the district and around 4. earthquake zone in degrees. However, there were two earthquakes in the 600s and there is no significant seismic activity.6 districts are far from earthquake hazard as of location.

In Turkey, earthquake zones and settlements map shows that the harmless occurrence of the tremors is located in the region without danger.

The settlement system in birecik is shaped by the transportation characteristics of the district lands, rivers, agricultural lands, climate characteristics and the effects of the traditional lifestyle of developed civilizations in the region. Apart from the Euphrates Valley, the settlement in the rural area was mostly based on agriculture and small-head animal husbandry.