The History Of Birecik
Birecik, the district center of Urfa province in the Central Euphrates section of southeastern Anatolia; 43,587 inhabitants, on the left bank of the Euphrates River, was founded at a height of 340 m above sea level. The houses are spread over a narrow plain of river length and on a steep slope rising behind it. There is also a castle on this slope. The Euphrates, from the point where Birecik is located, is a small river downstream.
Suitable for transport. For this reason, birecik has gained importance since the time of the transfer between land and river transportation. In later periods, the town began to decline as Istanbul-Baghdad Railway passed from Birecik to the south and the caravan trade lost its old importance. In recent years, the construction of a large bridge on the Euphrates has increased the importance of the town again. It is 83 km from Birecik Urfa and 63 km from Gaziantep.
Birecik district (population is 92.355 and area 852 km ) has 85 neighborhoods and 10 districts are connected to the center.
The people of the county are engaged in agriculture of cereals and legumes. Hemp cultivation and peanut cultivation also play an important role in the economic life of the county.
The archaeologist. The first peleolithic (Old-Stone Age) instrument in birecik Anatolia is known as prehistoric archaeological lithography of Anatolia due to its presence here. In 1894.E. This instrument with Gautier is a bipartite (biface amyodöide), coarse-cut and Acheulleen ( Acheulleen), i.e. a lower peleolithic circuit. Before the discovery of the birecik AX, there was a discussion about the presence of peleolithic settlements in Asia Minor. Today, except for the high mountains, it has been found that people lived in all parts of Anatolia from the chipped Stone Age.
Birecik Bridge, the Urfa-Gaziantep state road until the close years of the bridge on the Euphrates River in Birecik, the river is interrupted at this point, kayak and the waves at this point continued on the journey. At the end of 1952, construction of a bridge was started here. The birecik bridge, which ended at the end of 1955, is 720 m long and 10 m wide. On both sides, sections of one meter are divided for the passage of pedestrians. On the birecik side there are 5 arches at 55 and on the Gaziantep side there are 14 sections at 26 m.
Birecik Shipyard, the Ottoman state in the time of the shipyard (XVI. century.(see). Small river ships were built on the Euphrates and Tigris.
IN ANA BRITANNICA.
Birecik is the district and district center of Sanliurfa province in southeastern Anatolia Region. The province of birecik, which has an area of 852 km2, is surrounded by Halfeti in the North, bozova in the northeast, suruç in the East, Syria in the South, Gaziantep in the West.
Birecik District is located in the south part of Şanlıurfa, which is not very high. The region, which is mostly a wavy plain, forms the southwestern part of the Şanlıurfa plateau. These lands are lowered as they go towards the Euphrates River, which is the natural border in the West. The main elevations are Şeyhbekir hill ( 660 m ) in Northwest and Karadağ in southern part ( 576 m ). The Plains along the Euphrates River are the most important agricultural areas of the district. The main economic activity in the district is agriculture and Agriculture-based small industry. Plant production is quite diversified. Due to climate and soil availability, cereals such as wheat and barley, as well as lentils, cotton and pistachio are grown in products such as.
The province of Sanliurfa is Birecik, where olives are the most developed. 360 thousand of the olive trees in the province is located here.
The biggest source of livelihood in the district is pistachio. The total number of pistachio trees in the district is about 3.910.000 thousand units of the number of trees without fruit 2.760.000 thousand units of the total number of pistachio trees in our district is 6.670.000 thousand units.
Animal husbandry is an important source of livelihood in the district where tribal relations are continuing to a certain extent. Most small ruminants are fed; oil, cheese, wool, is obtained from animal products such as wool. The industry consists of small businesses based on the processing of agricultural products, primarily weaving and food.
Birecik, due to the availability of surface shapes and an important bridge on the edge of the Euphrates River, has been the scene of various settlements since ancient times. 2. it is said that the region that was in the hands of Hittites in thousands of years was called Birthe. IO 9. birecik, which was captured by the Assyrians in the century, then lived the Persian, Mekadonia, Roman and Byzantine empires, respectively. He was invaded by Arabs in 780. 11. After the Seljuk rule after the centuries, it became the hands of Byzantium again. Artuklu, Eyyubi, Akkoyunlu and Karakoyunlu periods, 1502’te Safavid was followed by the sovereignty. Birecik joined the Ottoman lands in 1517. 19. The region, which was an accident due to Urfa banner of Aleppo Province after centuries, remained in British occupation for a while in 1919.
The transportation activity on the Euphrates River and the trade and industry that developed due to it have been marked as Birecik. 16. It is known that there was a shipyard built in Birecik in the century. Although this shipyard had lost its importance, the construction of large load boats continued.
Birthe in antiquity and Biretü’l – Firat in Ottoman period, Birecik, also known as Birecik, was an important anchor point in the trade between Anatolia and Mesopotamia. It was interrupted by the arrival of the local railway in the century and the independence of the Middle East countries. The city has taken a toll on extinction. On the Euphrates in 1956, birecik started to develop again with the construction of the Birecik Bridge, one of Turkey’s longest bridges.
Thus, the transportation, which had previously been linked to the swelling and overflow of Euphrates, was liberated from the limitations of natural conditions, the integration process with the country’s market accelerated, and agricultural activity with trade revived. The urban population grew rapidly after the bridge was built. The rate of increase between 1960 and 1985 was 100 percent. Birecik City is developing in a linear way towards agricultural areas around Şanlıurfa highway.
An important feature of birecik was the fact that the Kelaynak birds, who were dying of extinction, were one of the few places in the world where they lived naturally. After spending winter in Ethiopia and Madagascar, resources from Birik starting in mid-February were living in the city on the rocks surrounded by housing. However, these birds, which can be kept alive under maintenance, are now transformed into poultry that will lose their ability to migrate. Birecik is a resting place for those who come around with its natural beaches, motels and facilities such as casinos around Euphrates.
Birecik Castle is the only important historical structure in the city. It was built in the time of the Assyrians and was repaired in various dö – nemler. Made of large cut stones, there are 12 towers on the walls with 30-40 m in height.